simple sourdough loaf

simple sourdough loaf

I got back in the country from my Spring break trip already almost 2 weeks, but I haven’t yet baked any bread.  As soon as  I arrived  2 Saturdays ago, I only had enough time to distribute the gifts, straightened out my luggage, got a few hours of sleep and left the very next day heading up to the mountains –without forgetting to feed my two starters (white and rye)–.

I created this white starter last September and it has since risen consistently many loaves of bread.

white starter

white starter, 2 hours away before feeding time

Before I set up the oven with baking tiles & lava rocks for steam I used to bake all my bread in lidded cast-iron & lidded Pyrex pots.

baking vessels

baking vessels

In the beginning of my baking adventure and out of curiosity, I’d tried all sorts of suggested baking method,  including this fairly dangerous one but it worked quite well –I believe by Susan of San Diego posted on The Fresh Loaf –a pre-heated inverted Pyrex bowl over the loaf–.

inverted Pyrex baking method

inverted Pyrex baking method

I am visiting at 7200 feet above sea level so I won’t even attempt to bake any bread even one with commercial yeast; although I must confess  I thought about bread baking quite a bit in the past few days.  To relieve my hunger for baking I am going to post this Simple Sourdough also by Susan SD (stands for San Diego) whose recipe I’d made a number of times and liked it very much.

What appeals to me is its simplicity, from 4 simple & basic ingredients: sourdough starter, white flour, a small percentage of rye/whole wheat flour, salt and water to its flexible mixing, shaping & baking method.  And it tastes delicious.

Of course you can mix in seeds if you know what you are doing and don’t have to bake in a lidded pot.  For this particular loaf I threw in about 3 Tablespoons of ground flax seed and dried blueberry — purchased from Trader Joe’s– for some color as well as taste.

Simple Sourdough Loaf with ground flax seed and dried blueberry

Simple Sourdough Loaf with ground flax seed and dried blueberry


50 g firm starter,  I use 65%-hydration starter

204 g water

275 g strong bread flour

25 g white whole wheat flour, I use whole rye flour

6 g sea salt

3 Tablespoons blueberry ground flax seed (from Trader Joe’s), optional


Mixed all ingredients minimally by hand and let it rest for 30 minutes.  Do 1 Stretch & Fold, then 2 more S&F at 1-hour interval.

Let it rise at room temperature 70°-72° F until double.  Pre-shape, rest loaf 15-20 minutes, then shape it into tight boule.  Place the loaf in a linen-lined container about 2.5 times larger than its size.  Cover it well with quick saran wrap, and place in the fridge overnight.

Take it out the next day & warm it up for 2 hours at room temperature.  Pre-heat oven with a closed lid cast-iron pot at 475 ° F, at least 45 minutes before baking.  Score the loaf, place it in the pre-heated pot, close the lid and bake for 20 minutes at 450° F.  Remove lid and bake for another 20 minutes.  I take the loaf out of the pot and bake it in the oven for the required amount of time & turning it 180 degrees half way into baking for an even bake.  Turn the oven off, crack the oven door open and leave the loaf in for another 5-10 minutes more.  Cool it on rack for 1 plus hour or so before cutting it.  Enjoy.

Simple Sourdough Loaf: Crumb & Crust

Simple Sourdough Loaf: Crumb & Crust

I am sending this bread to this week’s Yeast Spotting.  Go visit the site, even if you don’t bake bread, it’s a feast for the eyes, and maybe you would change your mind afterward.


Pane al Cioccolato: dangling chocolate pieces

It’s a little cold this morning –already my 5th day in France being with my wonderful family– in the suburb of SE Paris, so I decide to make another batch of hot chocolate drink for myself and the kids -my niece and nephew– who are sleeping still as it’s early here just past 0700 in the morning.  As I travel with my milk frother, chocolate drink can be made just about anywhere to quickly get chocolate into my blood stream.  🙂 Anyway, this “pane al cioccolato” comes to mind as I am sipping the rich, slightly sweet, aromatic and warm chocolate milk wishing a piece of such lovely toast right this minute to dunk into this wonderful drink for a double shot of dark chocolate and yes, more caffeine, not that I need any.

I’d followed & enjoyed  Jude of Apple Pie, Patis & Pâté for a while until it has become a ghost blog since July 2009.  This recipe and method came from his blog where he posted some great photos of the bread and dough.  Browse his site  when you have a chance,  you would have a fun time as I’ve had.

This bread caught my attention because of the one single ingredient namely chocolate, secondly the natural starter used in –as with most Italian bread– its biga, an equivalence of [French/Polish?] poolish, made with a lower-than-100-percent sourdough starter resulting in a doughy biga naturale and thirdly it can be done within a day after mixing the biga the previous night.

Pane al Cioccolato /Italian Chocolate Bread

recipe from Apple Pie, Patis & Pâté , which adapted from Michel Suas’ Advanced Bread and Pastry

makes two 375 gram / 13.25 ounce loaves

For the Biga Naturale / Wild Yeast Starter:

Ingredients       Grams starter (50% hydration) 28 bread flour 32 water, at room temperature 18

Mix the biga naturale ingredients until the ingredients are evenly distributed.

Place the biga naturale in a bowl and cover.  Let it ferment at room temperature (70 – 75° F)  for about 8 hours before using in the final dough.

Final Dough Formula:

Ingredients       Grams all of the biga naturale, cut into small pieces bread flour 393 water 248 honey 71  cocoa powder 25/4 Tablespooninstant yeast 1/4 teaspoon vanilla extract 1 Tablespoon sea salt 10/2 teaspoon chocolate chips 78 - I used Scharffen Berger's  72% chocolate, chopped into small pieces


Mix all of the ingredients (except the chocolate chips) until evenly incorporated.  Knead 8 to 10 minutes by a mixer until it reaches medium-gluten development.  Rest 5 minutes.  Fold in the chocolate chips by hand or by machine at low-speed  for about a minute or until the chocolate chips are thoroughly incorporated.

Proof the dough for 2 hours at room temperature in a lightly oiled bowl; if your starter is not as mature to start with it might take longer.

Divide the dough into 2 equal portions about 454 grams each.  Pre-shape lightly, cover with saran wrap and let rest for 20 minutes.

Shape into batard or ball.  Let them proof at room temperature for about 3 hours or longer until it’s light and filled with lots of air bubbles.

About 45 minutes before the proofing is done, pre-heat the oven with baking stone/tiles to 400 °F (204° F).  Prepare steam for the bake.

Slash 2 almost-parallel cuts at 15 – 20 degree angle to create flaps over the dough.  Load the loaves onto the pre-heated stone, apply steam, close the oven door and bake for 20 minutes.  Rotate the loaves, remove steam, and bake for another 15 to 20 minutes.

pane al cioccolato

pane al cioccolato

Pane al Cioccolato

Pane al Cioccolato open "grigne"

It tastes airily light with a soft crust, a chewy crumb and melted dark chocolate in every bite.   Serve this bread as breakfast and/or dessert with milk or your preferred drink.   Enjoy.

Italian Chocolate Bread: Crumb

Italian Chocolate Bread: Crumb

I couldn’t decide if this is rich-dough or lean-dough bread.  It started out as a lean dough with all the basic ingredients and a little bit of honey; however the [dark] chocolate has pushed it away from being lean so it’s rich bread then –Decision reached–.

I am pleased to send this bread to Yeast Spotting to share with other bread enthusiasts.  Please visit the site to enjoy this week’s wonderful bakes as well as those in the archives.  You will have a fun time there, I promise, would most likely go away with a bread or two to bake over the weekend.

pane al Cioccolato: toast

pane al Cioccolato: toast

yet another Pain de Mie Variation

yet-another Pain de Mie Variation sandwiches of smoked salmon, avocado, crème fraîche, sea salt and fresh coarsely black pepper

In just 2 days I’ll take a short Spring break vacation so I need to clean out the fridge.   Having quite some starter excess available I decide to bake my favorite Pain de Mie Variation and carry the bread with me flying across the Atlantic.  For this loaf I use different types of flours and seeds, including some nine-grain mix thrown in for good measure.

This bread turns out so well that it deserves a post by itself.  The semolina flour does make the bread seem drier; on the upshot it stays crackly crunchy for a long time.   It bakes well into a mahogany color crust and a beautiful crumb studded with seeds and pieces of coarse cornmeal.   I even record a video of its “musique du pain” within minutes it’s taken out of the oven.

I bake 2 medium-sized loaves,  keep one for my favorite sandwiches and share the other loaf with my friends, the Carsonis.  Few weeks ago I also gave a  loaf  of Pain de Mie to the same family where it was well received and quickly consumed.

Update;  I brought the rest of my bread with me on my said trip which was being canceled about 4 times due to the recent Iceland volcanic eruptionso enjoyed the slices in the four days of being an accidental tourist in San Francisco (Face Book link only).  Always bring your bread with you when you travel it comes in handy at unexpected time.

Let’s create this bread.


200 g starter excess (100 % hydration white and rye)

450 g water

400 g all-purpose flour (mine is only 9% protein)  + 1 1/2  teaspoon of wheat gluten

200 g fine semolina flour

1/8 tsp gold instant yeast **

102 g nine-grain mix + 1 TBsp toasted wheat germs + 2 TBsp quinoa grain/seed + mostly toasted sesame seed and some pepitas.

** I did not have enough starter & it did not look particularly active.  Just to be sure I add a tiny amount of yeast to give the dough a boost.


Measure the flour, the wheat gluten, yeast, and nine-grain mix in a large mixing bowl.  Use a whisk blend the mixture well.

mix of flours

mix of flours

flour mix and yeast

flour mixture, starter excess, water, yeast, salt, and seeds

Add the starter in the flour mixture; add water to the starter container to loosen the starter that clings to the container.

Measure the water, add to the mixture and mix with a wooden spoon or sturdy spatula until hydrated; it needs not to be perfectly mixed.

mixing starter and flour mixture

mixing starter and flour mixture

Let the dough autolyse for at least 45 minutes to an hour.  Cover well with quick saran wrap.

autolyse the mixed dough

autolyse the mixed dough

Add the salt, mix the dough by hand or use a mixer to medium gluten development, about 10 – 20 minutes depends on which method you use.  I use a bread maker set at dough mixing to mix it well; it takes me 15 minutes.

mixing dough in a bread maker

mixing dough in a bread maker

well-gluten-developped dough

medium-gluten-developed dough

Fold in the seeds either by hand or at low-setting on your mixer until just well-blended, no more than 2 minutes by machine.

roasted sesame seeds & pepitas

roasted sesame seeds & pepitas

seeds mixed in with dough

seeds mixed in with the dough

Put the dough in an oiled container, 2.5 times its size.  If your dough need more structure, give it a few folds within the next hour  then proceed to cold storage overnight for a long fermentation, from 10 hours up to 24 hours.

This particular dough is quite strong so I decide not to fold it at all but leave it out on the counter for 45 minutes then put it into the fridge.

When you are ready to bake the bread, take the dough out of the fridge and let it warm up to room temperature about 2 hours or so.  If you leave it in a warm place it might take less time.  Sprinkle some flour on the dough, take it out of the bowl and place it on a floured counter.

This particular dough is soft even with all the grains and seeds in it; it has a wonderful elasticity/extensibility profile.  I can already anticipate the slashing which would be a breeze.

dough ready after cold fermentation

dough ready after cold fermentation

Divide it into 2 equal portion (use a scale).  Roughly shape into 2 balls, sprinkle some flour on the surface, loosely cover with saran wrap and let them rest for 20 minutes.

Shape dough into 2 batards.  I proof the loaves directly on parchment paper-line baking sheet right side up.  Take care to leave room for expansion between the loaves.  I use rolled towels or this to aid support to the loaves and to encourage rising-up expansion.

Sprinkle some flour on the loaves.  Put the whole baking sheet inside a large garbage bag and leave it at a warm place 72° F – 75° F.  I turn the appliance light on and put the whole thing in the oven.

Let the loaves proof until well expanded, light and full of bubbles.

ready-to-bake shaped loaves

ready-to-bake shaped loaves

In the meantime turn on the oven with a baking stone/tiles at 450 ° F, at least 45 minutes before the bake.

Slash the loaves off center with a utility blade or sharp knife or  use a lame, at an angle about 30 degrees to create a flap over the dough to encourage ear and open “grigne” development.

Load the loaves on parchment in the oven.  Turn the oven down to 435 ° F.  Bake the loaves  with burst of steam the first 15-18 minutes.

Take the parchment off so that the loaves bake directly on the baking tiles.  Bake for another 30 minutes or so.  Turn them half way into the bake so they bake evenly.  Turn the oven of; crack the oven door open ajar;  leave the loaves inside to crisp up for another 10 minutes.  This method works really well.

Take the loaves out.  Let them cool completely on a wire rack.   Do not rush to cut into them.  Well, if you can’t stand it, cut a thin slice around the edge only; leave the center of the loaf alone until it cools down the next hour or so.  Be patient.

baked loaves

baked loaves

Loaf I

Loaf I

Loaf II

Loaf II

and the crumb with seeds, cracked corn nested in the crumb cells



I enjoy this bread very very much.  I made sandwiches twice in a row.

Sandwich I:  [wild Alaskan] Smoked salmon, avocado, sea salt, cracked pepper on Pain de Mie bread.

vocado spread on toasted slices

vocado spread on toasted slices

assembling sandwiches

assembling sandwiches

Smoked salmon avocado Pain de Mie sandwich

Smoked salmon avocado Pain de Mie sandwich

Sandwich II: [wild Alaskan] Smoked salmon, avocado, crème fraîche, sea salt, cracked pepper on Pain de Mie bread.

assembling sandwiches

assembling sandwiches

Sandwiches II

Smoked salmon avocado crème fraîchePain de Mie sandwiches

Hope you will enjoy making this bread and be creative about the different types of flours and seeds.  Enjoy baking and eating!

I am sending this bread [again, shamelessly] to share with the folks at this week’s Yeast Spotting.

pecan chocolate merringue Babka

pecan chocolate meringue Babka

Having made this Chocolate Babka with almond paste & dark chocolate filling and these meringues I knew I wanted to  create a babka borrowing flavors from both goodies.  I used the original recipe combined with several different recipes found on the Internet to come up with  an almost working formula for this loaf:  Nutmeg Pecan Chocolate Meringue Goodness in lightly sweet rich bread (not brioche).  I also shape the dough into a ring because I’ve never done it before and because it looks so pretty with the slashes open showing the inside.

For The Dough:

300 g all-purpose flour

50 g finely ground pecan (toast the pecan if you like)

50 g/1/4 Cup of sugar (I use evaporated cane juice)

128 g water or a combination of water and milk (I use 38 g water and 90 g of milk)

4 Tablespoons of butter, at room temperature

60 g egg/1 large egg , plus 1 egg yolk

1 1/8 tsp instant yeast

1/2 teaspoon salt

For the Meringue :

2 medium-size egg white, at room temperature

50 g sugar

1/8 teaspoon salt

1/4 teaspoon vanilla

For the Filling:

55 g / ½ Cup pecan, coarsely chopped

1 Tablespoon of sugar

¼ teaspoon of freshly ground nutmeg

75 g dark chocolate, chopped into small pieces (I used 72 percent cocoa chocolate)

For the Egg wash:

1 egg yolk


method of making chocolate meringue babka

method of making chocolate meringue babka

Make dough:

Mix all the ingredients, except butter, in a stand mixer with a paddle attachment at low-speed until combined.  Increase speed to medium and mix dough until it reaches well gluten development.  Lower the speed, beat in the butter, a few pieces at a time, and continue to beat until dough is shiny and forms strands from paddle to bowl, about 4 minutes. (Dough will be very soft and sticky.)

Scrape dough into a lightly oiled bowl and cover bowl with plastic wrap. Let dough rise in a draft-free place at warm room temperature until doubled in bulk, 1 ½ to 2 hours.

Line a large baking sheet with a large piece of parchment paper.   Punch down dough with a lightly oiled rubber spatula. Roll out the piece of dough on a well-floured surface with a lightly floured rolling-pin into an 21- by 10-inch rectangle and arrange with a long side nearest you.

Beat egg whites with a pinch of salt in a bowl with an electric mixer at high-speed until they hold soft peaks. Add sugar a little at a time, beating, then continue to beat at high-speed until whites hold stiff, glossy peaks, 1 to 3 minutes.

Beat the egg yolk.  Brush some of egg wash on long border nearest you.

Spread the meringue and sprinkle the filling evenly on the dough as shown in the above picture.  Starting with long side farthest from you, roll dough into a snug log, pinching firmly along egg-washed seam to seal. Bring ends of log together to form a ring, pinching to seal.  Transfer dough to the prepared baking sheet.  Make slashes one inch apart and a half-inch from the inner circle, as shown.

Chill remaining egg wash, covered, to use later.  Loosely cover the shaped dough with buttered plastic wrap (buttered side down) and let babka rise in a draft-free place at warm room temperature until dough well expand , 1 to 2 hours. (Alternatively, let dough rise in  refrigerator 8 to 12 hours; bring to room temperature, 3 to 4 hours, before baking.)

Put oven rack in middle place and preheat oven to 350°F.

Brush tops of dough with remaining egg wash. Bake until tops are deep golden brown, about 40 minutes. Transfer loaves to a rack and cool to room temperature.


Either the dough was soft and not strong enough to hold the filling or I put too much filling.   The filling spilled out when I rolled the dough sheet; it was an awful sticky mess.  Dough had a weak elasticity so when rolled out thin it could not hold the filling in.  It was a total panic wrestling it from the work surface to the prepared sheet pan and shaped into a ring!  The chocolate pieces, meringue, nut, & nutmeg spice kept spilling out clinging to my hands and from there back to the dough’s skin side as I was shaping it..staining the dough all over… Ahhgggrrr!  At some point I thought the loaf would end up on the floor.  I couldn’t even recall how I got it on the baking sheet with my two little hands for the loaf of that size.  And I even took some pictures?  How did it all happen?  I created this way back in November of last year.  Since then my mind had been altered, no wonder I could not remember anything that far back.  ;o)

shaped dough

rustic or messy looking?

Despite of the messy shaped dough, the baked babka turned out okay.  The widest part of the ring was way over 5 inches.  It’s all cooked.

rustic looking baked babka ring

rustic looking baked babka ring

How does it taste?  Well, the creaminess from the meringue, egg & butter together with the exotic blend of nutmeg & coarsely ground pecan nut swirled in melted dark chocolate layered between sheets of lightly sweet starch offer a heavenly sweetness come together in one bite.  This is quite addictive.



This is how I like to eat it, in bite-size morsels.  It can be served at breakfast, lunch or as a dessert.

chocolate pecan meringue babka morsels

chocolate pecan meringue babka morsels

Well, the flavor turned out as what I had hope for.  I like this sweet bread a lot.  In fact, I ate the whole thing over the course of a few days.  I’d like to share it but there wasn’t anybody around then.

I am sending this to this week’s Yeast Spotting.  Please go there to check out many other baked goods by yeast enthusiasts around the world.

Until I figure it out how tiled-picture link works properly, please go to the following links for the recipes and methods:

Gluten-Free Millet and Amaranth Crusted Artisan Bread,

Gluten-Free Hearty Seeded Bread (updated), and

Gluten-Free Blueberry Bread (yummy!)

This is a short post to summarise the gluten-free bread baking spree we went wild last weekend that spanned way into Passover: a total of 4-day baking resulted in 4 beautiful loaves of 3 different types of bread.  Yes, I said bread, gluten-free bread, to be exact and it’s important for those who could not or no longer be able to consume wheat-based baked goods/bread.

It’s too bad we could not offer these at the Passover Seder’s diner where only unleavened bread are eaten.

I was new and after baking 4 loaves I am still new but have learned a lot in this Terra incognita of bread baking.  I had a blast and gained a little bit confidence as such I know I can handle gluten-free bread.  However,  I do not understand the science behind all the ingredients that participated in the breads nor the leavening that we used.

I am just beginning to discover and already yearning for more.  Please chime in to share your experiences in gluten-free breads that you have made in your own kitchen.  I would like to learn more about it, trials and errors and success from you.  Thank you.

I am pleased to send this over to share with the folks at Yeast Spotting.  After all, that was where I first learned about gluten-free bread.   Happy baking gluten-free bread.  ;o)

Gluten-Free Blueberry Bread

Gluten-Free Blueberry Bread

Gluten-free Blueberry Bread

adapted from Real Food Made Easy‘s Gluten-Free Cinnamon Raisin Bread

which was adapted from a Betty Hagman recipe

Here is my ingredients & proportion for this particular loaf:

Dry Ingredients:

  • 80 g teff flour
  • 30 g sorghum flour
  • 160 g Bette’s Featherlight Mix (1/3 Cup each: cornstarch, brown rice flour, tapioca starch, plus  1¼ teaspoon potato flour)
  • 2 Tablespoons almond meal (I grind almond sliver in an electric mini chopper)
  • 3/4 teaspoon xantham gum
  • 3/4 teaspoon guar gum (I don’t have this so substitute same amount of xantham gum, per The Cook’s Thesaurus‘ advice)
  • 1/2 teaspoon Redmond real salt (red tinted salt)
  • 1 teaspoon agar powder (or gelatin)
  • 1  ½ teaspoons nutmeg **
  • 2 ½ teaspoons instant yeast (I used Gold instant yeast)
  • 6 Tablespoons dried blueberries (I had just that exact amount, coincidentally) **

Wet Ingredients:

  • 1/4 Cup or 4 Tablespoons Agave Nectar **
  • 1/2 teaspoon cider vinegar
  • 2 Tablespoons + 1 teaspoon chia seeds soaked in 6 Tablespoons + 1/4 teaspoon warm water
  • 1 Cup + 2 Tablespoons warm water (72º F – 75º F)

Equipment:  one 8 ½ x 4 ½ x 2 ½ inch loaf pan.

** denotes my changes/substitution


Soak the chia seeds.  Mix the dry ingredients.  Measure oil and sweetener.  Add water and mix well.  Tips: measure the oil first then use the same spoon to measure the liquid sweetener so it won’t stick to the spoon; it works beautifully.

dry & wet mixtures

dry & wet mixtures

Mix in the wet ingredient mixture, the soaked chia seeds with the dry ingredient mixture.

mixing the dry and wet mixtures

mixing the dry and wet mixtures

The dough comes together nicely, feels and looks just like wheat-based dough.  I love the light brow reddish color that imparted from the teff flour.


mixed dough

Grease the loaf pan.  Scoop the dough into the prepared pan.  Spread it out evenly and try to fill the corners.  Loosely put a greased saran wrap on top and leave it at room temperature for 1.5 hours or until the dough rises above the pan but not fall out of it (about 1/8 inch).

I went out to grab a bite to eat and came back 2 hours later to a well-risen loaf ready to be baked.

well-risen loaf

well-risen loaf

The covered saran wrap comes right off and you can see the dough is very airy filled with lots of bubbles:

risen loaf

risen loaf

Turn the oven on 15 minutes before baking.  Bake the loaf at 400º F for 55-60 minutes, until test insert comes out with a few dried crumb or internal temperature registers 205º F.  Let the loaf cool completely on a rack.

Note: I did turn the oven down to 385º F the last 12 minutes so keep an eye on your loaf and check your oven’s temperature.

Well, here is a close-up of the crumb.  I am surprised how well the crust and crumb held together as a loaf.  Its color is stunningly beautiful, don’t you think?  It tastes delicious, just slightly & delicately sweet –thanks to the agave nectar–, the spice nutmeg goes well with the blueberries (I wasn’t quite sure when I first played with the idea in my head) which offers little bursts of sweetness here and there carrying out real blueberry flavor.  The chia seed was quite well blended in in the bread probably because it was soaked, unlike its pronounced taste in another gluten-free bread I baked just 2 days ago.

loaf & slices

porous, moist, and blueberry studded crumb

I was quite taken when a chewy texture of bread hits my palate when I took the first bite into a slice; however further chewing reminds me that this is gluten-free bread I am eating because as I continue chewing, the crumb sort of crumbles into texture that tastes similar to that of cooked cream of wheat.  Not in a bad way, no!  How could it not be good with all the beautiful ingredients that made up the loaf?  What it would not be is an equal alternative to wheat bread although many people will voice their different opinions strongly.  I am quite satisfied with it and have been eating some with and without butter at breakfast and lunch.

It is the next best thing for people who are no longer able to eat  wheat bread. I am glad I can still enjoy wheat-based goodies but now appreciate gluten-free ones.  Wheat or wheat-free I like quality bread such as this one.

I am so pleased that I have already thought of a new flavor for  next loaf.  I am thinking perhaps dried pitted tart Montmorency cherries with a few small chunks of 70-percent-cacao chocolate scented up by just a splash of Tahitian vanilla.  That sounds really decadence.  Stay tuned.

A few things I’ve learned:

Baking gluten-free bread is non-threatening and no extra skills are required.

I would try adding egg to see if it helps taste & texture not that it needs improvement.   The original recipe used

soaked chia seeds as an egg alternative.  We are not vegan here and we love egg so egg will be in next loaf.

Happy Baking Gluten-Free Bread!